STL Index for: Apremilast
Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a key enzyme in the regulation of immune responses of inflammatory diseases through degradation of the second messenger, cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP). Apremilast (APR), a selective PDE4 inhibitor, has been shown to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Apremilast, a selective PDE4 inhibitor, has been shown to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. A review of clinical trial data treating psoriasis, considering adverse effects, efficacy and tolerance.
The scalp is involved in up to 80% of individuals with psoriasis. Topical treatment with corticosteroids with or without vitamin D3 analogues is the mainstay of treatment, but other therapies such as light treatment and systemic drugs including biologics are discussed.
An overview and update of skin treatments introduced in 2014: Quick overview of drug name, indications and regulatory status. Clindamycin phosphate 1.2% + benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel (Onexton™), Doxycycline hyclate tablets (Acticlate™), Tretinoin gel microsphere 0.08% (Retin-A Micro®) and many other drugs are covered.
Update on Apremilast tablets (Otezla®), Collagenase clostridium histolyticum for injection (Xiaflex®), Afamelanotide 16 mg subcutaneous bioresorbable implants (Scenesse®), Clindamycin phosphate 1.2% + benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel (Onexton™), Dupilumab SC injection, Apremilast tablets (Otezla®).
Update on Brimonidine tartrate 0.33% topical gel (Onreltea®Mirvaso®), Apremilast tablets (Otezla®), Miltefosine capsules (Impavido®), Hydrogel wound dressing (Loutrex®), Omalizumab for SC injection (Xolair®), Propranolol hydrochloride oral solution (Hemangeol™), Microbicide-coated condom Vivagel® (SPL7013 gel)
While biologics changed the way psoriasis is treated by providing effective targeted therapy, they are not without limitations. Small molecules are emerging therapeutic options for the treatment of psoriasis.