1Center for Clinical Studies Webster, TX, USA
2Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, USA
3Texas A&M University College of Medicine, Temple, TX, USA
4University of Texas Health Science Center, Department of Dermatology, Houston, TX, USA
Conflict of interest: All authors have no conflicts of interest.
Virtually any antibiotic can be used in dermatology given the broad range of conditions treated. With the widespread use of antibiotics and the rapid emergence of resistant organisms, it is important to understand how dermatologists can combat this issue.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance, dermatology, antibiotic, antimicrobial, infection, acne, rosacea, hidradenitis suppurativa, folliculitis decalvans, bullous pemphigoid, CARP
There are many reasons for the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Aside from rampant use in agriculture settings, poor antibiotic stewardship among physicians is a major contributor. Dermatologists play an essential role in this process given the significant incidence of inflammatory dermatoses, as well as skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) treated with antibiotics. Furthermore, dermatologists have a higher rate of prescribing antibiotics compared to other specialists.1 Therefore, it is crucial for dermatologists to understand strategies to combat bacterial resistance and reduce its global burden.
Combating Antibiotic Resistance in Dermatology
Molecular resistance is perpetuated through poor antibiotic stewardship. Commonly, this stems from unclear instructions on self-administration of antibiotics, use of sub-antimicrobial dosing, prescription of antibiotics for minor bacterial infections, use of antibacterial drugs for non-bacterial infections, and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for narrow-spectrum indications.2
General methods for diminishing risk of antibiotic resistance include detailed history and physical, diagnostic laboratory and culture studies, close monitoring of clinical response, appropriate directed-therapy when the causative organism is identified, relevant empiric treatment based on local antimicrobial susceptibilities within the community, and continuing therapy for the appropriate duration.3 All of these general precautions, as well as discontinuing of antibiotics when deemed unnecessary, will aid to reduce the rate of antibiotic resistance.3
In the United States, individuals with acne vulgaris and rosacea account for 20% of the patients prescribed antimicrobials in dermatology.4 SSTIs account for a significant amount of the remaining portion. Specific strategies can be utilized to combat emerging resistance in the treatment of acne vulgaris, rosacea, hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), folliculitis decalvans (FD), bullous pemphigoid (BP), and confluent and reticulated papillomatosis (CARP) and SSTIs.
Antibiotic monotherapy is not recommended for acne vulgaris treatment. Both topical and systemic monotherapy may induce resistance among Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) and other organisms that comprise the commensal and transient flora.5 The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) guidelines recommend coadministration of benzoyl peroxide, a topical bactericidal agent not reported to cause resistance, together with both topical and oral antibiotics.6,7 Added to topical antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide may prevent the formation of resistance and increase treatment efficacy.6 Only indirect evidence supports the ability of benzoyl peroxide to limit resistance when used with oral antibiotics.6,8 Additionally, the AAD recommends using the shortest possible courses, limiting antibiotic use to 3-4 months.7
Low-dose or “sub-antimicrobial” doses of doxycycline have been used in rosacea and acne vulgaris, with the intention to only derive benefits from the anti-inflammatory properties of the antibiotic.2,9,10 However, contrary to the common belief, recent studies demonstrated that low-dose antibiotic exposure leads to the development of high-level resistance.2,9,11
A unique method being utilized to bypass bacterial resistance in acne is the development of narrow spectrum drugs such as the new tetracycline, sarecycline. Sarecycline is a US FDA approved therapy specifically designed to treat moderate-severe acne and is the only antibiotic with a low resistance claim in its label.2 It is narrow spectrum with coverage limited to clinically relevant gram-positive organisms, including C. acnes. Its structural design involves an elongated C7 moiety that extends into the 30S ribosome and directly interferes with mRNA unlike typical tetracyclines.2 This newer design allows for stronger binding and increased inhibitory effects.
The large body of evidence supporting an inflammatory pathogenesis of rosacea not triggered by a bacterial etiology has led to rosacea management guidelines that support avoidance of antibiotics whenever possible.5 This includes the papulopustular subtype. Antibiotics should only be used after failure of topical and oral anti-inflammatory therapy.12 Like acne, if antibiotics are used, the course should be as short as possible with treatment for no longer than 2 months.12
Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS)
Given that topical clindamycin and oral tetracycline are firstline therapies for HS, it is not surprising that a high percentage of HS patients harbor lincosamide and tetracycline resistant bacteria.13 Therefore, it is recommended that antibiotics be used as adjunctive therapy with other management options, including chlorhexidine or benzoyl peroxide wash, adalimumab, smoking cessation, weight loss, and other non-antimicrobial treatments.13,14
Folliculitis Decalvans (FD)
A small study of patients with FD who received one or more courses of antibiotic therapy demonstrated a third of patients harbored antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).15 The resistance rates in FD patients were significantly higher than the community reference values.15
Given FD is thought to stem from S. aureus, antibiotic therapy will likely remain the gold standard for exacerbations.15 However, treatments should be based on bacterial culture/sensitivities, with the aim to transition to nonantibiotic medical therapies (isotretinoin/dapsone/photodynamic therapy) or destructive therapies (laser hair removal/surgery) to suppress inflammation and address hair follicle structural abnormalities and biofilm formation to induce long-term remission.15,16
Bullous Pemphigoid (BP)
Although topical and systemic steroids are considered the first-line treatment for BP, the substantial morbidity and mortality associated with these regimens presents a therapeutic challenge. Inasmuch, other treatment options are being sought. Among the plethora of agents trialed have been antibiotics, most notably tetracyclines given their anti-inflammatory properties. While some trials have concluded that systemic tetracyclines are effective in BP treatment, they are inferior in recovery rate when compared to systemic steroids.17 Moreover, those with milder BP and shorter courses of tetracyclines tend to achieve a lower proportion of remission than those with severe disease, indicating that disease severity and the potential need for prolonged treatment should to be taken into account before initiation.18 Therefore, judicious consideration is needed before placing patients on antibiotics for BP treatment. In general, tetracyclines may be appropriate in older patients with comorbidities that contraindicate systemic steroid use.18
Confluent and Reticulated Papillomatosis (CARP)
Oral tetracyclines are the most commonly cited monotherapy for CARP; minocycline is utilized most frequently, but other antibiotics used include amoxicillin and azithromycin.19 Evidence suggests dysfunctional keratinization as a cause of CARP, and this is supported by successful treatment with both topical and oral retinoids.21 Efficacy of this treatment is attributed to the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of retinoids and normalization of keratinization.20 Advantages of retinoid therapy include higher patient compliance and decreased side effects.20 Other treatment options that have demonstrated clinical effects include topical vitamin D derivatives.19
Skin and Soft Tissue Infections (SSTIs)
Resistance has emerged against many commonly used topical and oral antibiotics for SSTIs. This is likely a result of overuse and misuse.
Prophylactic use of topical antibiotics after surgical procedures is often unnecessary. A meta-analysis based on data pooled from four studies failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference between application of topical antibiotics versus topical petrolatum/paraffin in preventing post-surgical infections after low risk office-based dermatologic procedures.5,22 Low risk procedures include those with clean and clean-contaminated wounds, and following procedures in patients that are immunocompetent and not at high risk of infection, surgeries performed in regions above the knee, and surgeries not involving the groin, ears, or mucosal region of the nose or mouth.5 In cases where risk of post-operative infection is high, it is a better choice to utilize oral antibiotic prophylaxis, as topical therapy alone is not as likely to provide adequate prevention of infection.5,23
Other prophylactic uses of topical antibiotics, such as with atopic dermatitis (AD), have not demonstrated efficacy either. When a cutaneous infection is present, antibiotic therapy is therapeutically beneficial in AD.18 However, chronic topical or oral antibiotic therapy is not advised to manage or suppress AD in the absence of a true skin infection, and it serves only to promote antibiotic resistance.18
Another factor to keep in mind is that topical antibiotic therapy is capable of inducing antibiotic resistance beyond areas of application.5 Topical erythromycin used on the face induced resistant C. acnes and staphylococci on the back and anterior nares where it was not applied.24 Similar results have been demonstrated with other bacteria such as streptococci.5
Mupirocin resistance has reached up to 80% among bacterial strains such as S. aureus in certain communities with heavy usage.13,25 Low resistance alternatives are fusidic acid and topical pleuromutilins.13 Moreover, regular local antiseptic treatment including octenidine or polyhexanide is broadly efficacious and confers a significantly lower risk of resistance relative to topical antibiotics.26
Prophylactic oral antibiotics are rarely appropriate for routine dermatologic surgery and are not indicated for patients who have prosthetic joints or vascular grafts.23 It is recommended only for a small group of patients that have abnormal cardiac valves, and then only with surgery involving clearly infected skin or soft-tissue.23
Controlled trials indicate that antimicrobial agents are unhelpful in treating cutaneous abscesses, inflamed epidermal cysts, uninfected atopic eczema, and cutaneous ulcers caused by venous insufficiency or diabetes in the absence of significant contiguous soft-tissue inflammation.23
Between 5-10% of the North American population is classified as beta-lactam allergic.27 However, only 10% of these can be confirmed by allergy diagnostics.27 A false beta-lactam allergy diagnosis may lead to inappropriate use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Common reasons for a false beta-lactam allergy include misinterpretation of known predictable side effects, misinterpretation of infection-induced urticaria or viral exanthema as an immediate type drug reaction or drug exanthema; interpreting non-specific symptoms as an allergy, and considering known reactions in the family as signs of personal allergy.27 To verify a true beta-lactam allergy, risk stratification of all patients should be performed. Patients with a questionable allergy may be excluded based on history alone.27 Patients with an incomplete history or mild reaction may be tested on a case-by-case basis.27 Patients with a medical history strongly suggesting a true allergy should undergo formal testing through a skin test (skin prick, intradermal/patch), lab test (specific immunoglobulin E, basophil activation test), and/or oral provocation test with fractionated administration of beta-lactam.27
To confront the challenge of resistance, modification of existing antibiotics to improve potency and efficacy is underway.13 Additionally, development of new narrow spectrum agents with novel mechanisms of action is being pursued.13 Given that drug development is a slow process, it cannot keep up with the spread of resistant bacteria. Therefore, alternative methods are under investigation.
One promising avenue is modulation of the skin microbiome.13 Abnormalities in the skin microbiome have been observed in patients with acne.13,28 Treatment with isotretinoin in these patients restored microbiomes to normal.28 Thus, infectious and inflammatory dermatoses may respond to direct manipulation of the skin microbiome via live biotherapeutic products or transplantation of human skin microbiota.13 Recent trials have already demonstrated success in treating AD with skin microbiota transplantation.29
Another alternative gaining traction is phage therapy, which uses bacteriophages to infect and lyse bacteria.13,30 Recent studies have reported successful use of personalized bacteriophage therapy in patients with multidrug-resistant infections.31
Further strategies include implementation of electroporation, antimicrobial peptides, photodynamic therapy (PDT), photothermal therapy, nitrous oxide-releasing nanoparticles, cannabidiol, or combinations of these options.32 PDT is a therapeutic option for cutaneous infections immune to antibiotics. PDT use in acne results in reduced follicular obstruction and lower sebum excretion.32 At higher doses, it can destroy sebaceous glands.32 For cutaneous leishmaniasis and warts, PDT has demonstrated clearance rates of up to 100%.32 PDT has also been initiated as a treatment option for onychomycosis.32 Transdermal iontophoresis has been coupled with PDT to increase its effectiveness.32 It uses small electrical currents to permit controlled drug delivery and use of smaller drug concentrations.32 Its use has demonstrated broad spectrum antimicrobial efficacy against bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
Correct and appropriate use of antibiotics will help to preserve their utility in the face of increasing antibiotic resistance; however, greater awareness of the etiologies of resistance and how to combat each is required among prescribing providers.
- Del Rosso JQ, Webster GF, Rosen T, et al. Status report from the scientific panel on antibiotic use in dermatology of the American Acne and Rosacea Society: Part 1: antibiotic prescribing patterns, sources of antibiotic exposure, antibiotic consumption and emergence of antibiotic resistance, impact of alterations in antibiotic prescribing, and clinical sequelae of antibiotic use. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2016 Apr;9(4):18-24.
- Shah RA. Mechanisms of bacterial resistance. In: Tyring SK, Moore SA, Moore AY, et al. (editors). Overcoming antimicrobial resistance of the skin [Internet]. Updates in clinical dermatology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2021, p.3-25. [cited October 3, 2021]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-68321-4_1
- Chon SY, Doan HQ, Mays RM, et al. Antibiotic overuse and resistance in dermatology. Dermatol Ther. 2012 Jan-Feb;25(1):55-69.
- Bickers DR, Lim HW, Margolis D, et al. The burden of skin diseases: 2004 a joint project of the American Academy of Dermatology Association and the Society for Investigative Dermatology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Sep;55(3):490-500.
- Del Rosso, J. Antibiotic resistance considerations of importance to clinical dermatologists. SKIN The Journal of Cutaneous Medicine. 2017 Sep;1(2):64-73. [cited October 5, 2021]. Available from: https://jofskin.org/index.php/skin/ article/view/28/pdf
- Adler BL, Kornmehl H, Armstrong AW. Antibiotic resistance in acne treatment. JAMA Dermatol. 2017 Aug 1;153(8):810-1.
- Zaenglein AL, Pathy AL, Schlosser BJ, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 May;74(5): 945-73 e33.
- Nast A, Dreno B, Bettoli V, et al. European evidence-based (S3) guideline for the treatment of acne – update 2016 – short version. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016 Aug;30(8):1261-8.
- Andersson DI, Hughes D. Microbiological effects of sublethal levels of antibiotics. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2014 Jul;12(7):465-78.
- Armstrong AW, Hekmatjah J, Kircik LH. Oral tetracyclines and acne: a systematic review for dermatologists. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020 Nov 1;19(11):s6-s13.
- Wistrand-Yuen E, Knopp M, Hjort K, et al. Evolution of high-level resistance during low-level antibiotic exposure. Nat Commun. 2018 Apr 23;9(1):1599.
- Del Rosso JQ, Baldwin H, Webster G, American A, Rosacea S. American Acne & Rosacea Society rosacea medical management guidelines. J Drugs Dermatol. 2008 Jun;7(6):531-3.
- Shah RA, Hsu JI, Patel RR, et al. Antibiotic resistance in dermatology: the scope of the problem and strategies to address it. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Jun;86(6):1337-45.
- Goldburg SR, Strober BE, Payette MJ. Hidradenitis suppurativa: current and emerging treatments. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 May;82(5):1061-82.
- Asfour L, Trautt E, Harries MJ. Folliculitis decalvans in the era of antibiotic resistance: microbiology and antibiotic sensitivities in a tertiary hair clinic. Int J Trichology. 2020 Jul-Aug;12(4):193-4.
- Matard B, Meylheuc T, Briandet R, et al. First evidence of bacterial biofilms in the anaerobe part of scalp hair follicles: a pilot comparative study in folliculitis decalvans. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013 Jul;27(7):853-60.
- Salman S, Awad M, Sarsik S, et al. Treatment options for autoimmune bullous dermatoses other than systemic steroids: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Dermatol Ther. 2020 Nov;33(6):e13861.
- Jin XX, Wang X, Shan Y, et al. Efficacy and safety of tetracyclines for pemphigoid: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dermatol Res. 2022 Mar;314(2):191-201.
- Mufti A, Sachdeva M, Maliyar K, et al. Treatment outcomes in confluent and reticulated papillomatosis: a systematic review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Mar;84(3):825-9.
- Erkek E, Ayva S, Atasoy P, et al. Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis: favourable response to low-dose isotretinoin. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 Nov;23(11):1342-3.
- Solomon BA, Laude TA. Two patients with confluent and reticulated papillomatosis: response to oral isotretinoin and 10% lactic acid lotion. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996 Oct;35(4):645-6.
- Saco M, Howe N, Nathoo R, et al. Topical antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of surgical wound infections from dermatologic procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dermatolog Treat. 2015 Apr;26(2):151-8.
- Hirschmann JV. When antibiotics are unnecessary. Dermatol Clin. 2009 Jan; 27(1):75-83.
- Mills O, Jr., Thornsberry C, Cardin CW, et al. Bacterial resistance and therapeutic outcome following three months of topical acne therapy with 2% erythromycin gel versus its vehicle. Acta Derm Venereol. 2002 82(4):260-5.
- Tucaliuc A, Blaga AC, Galaction AI, et al. Mupirocin: applications and production. Biotechnol Lett. 2019 May;41(4-5):495-502.
- Kreft B, Wohlrab J. Contact allergies to topical antibiotic applications. Allergol Select. 2022 6:18-26.
- Brockow K, Wurpts G, Trautmann A. Patients with questionable penicillin (beta-lactam) allergy: causes and solutions. Allergol Select. 2022 Feb 1;6:33-41.
- McCoy WH 4th, Otchere E, Rosa BA, et al. Skin ecology during sebaceous drought-how skin microbes respond to isotretinoin. J Invest Dermatol. 2019 Mar;139(3):732-5.
- Myles IA, Earland NJ, Anderson ED, et al. First-in-human topical microbiome transplantation with Roseomonas mucosa for atopic dermatitis. JCI Insight. 2018 May 3;3(9):120608.
- Kortright KE, Chan BK, Koff JL, et al. Phage therapy: a renewed approach to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Cell Host Microbe. 2019 Feb 13;25(2):219-32.
- Schooley RT, Biswas B, Gill JJ, et al. Development and use of personalized bacteriophage-based therapeutic cocktails to treat a patient with a disseminated resistant acinetobacter baumannii infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Oct;61(10):e00954-17.
- Mackay AM. The evolution of clinical guidelines for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy of skin. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2022 Mar;21(3):385-95.